Source code for discord.client

The MIT License (MIT)

Copyright (c) 2015-2021 Rapptz
Copyright (c) 2021-present Pycord Development

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"),
to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation
the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense,
and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.


from __future__ import annotations

import asyncio
import logging
import signal
import sys
import traceback
from types import TracebackType
from typing import TYPE_CHECKING, Any, Callable, Coroutine, Generator, Sequence, TypeVar

import aiohttp

from . import utils
from .activity import ActivityTypes, BaseActivity, create_activity
from .appinfo import AppInfo, PartialAppInfo
from .application_role_connection import ApplicationRoleConnectionMetadata
from .backoff import ExponentialBackoff
from .channel import PartialMessageable, _threaded_channel_factory
from .emoji import Emoji
from .enums import ChannelType, Status
from .errors import *
from .flags import ApplicationFlags, Intents
from .gateway import *
from .guild import Guild
from .http import HTTPClient
from .invite import Invite
from .iterators import GuildIterator
from .mentions import AllowedMentions
from .monetization import SKU, Entitlement
from .object import Object
from .stage_instance import StageInstance
from .state import ConnectionState
from .sticker import GuildSticker, StandardSticker, StickerPack, _sticker_factory
from .template import Template
from .threads import Thread
from .ui.view import View
from .user import ClientUser, User
from .utils import MISSING
from .voice_client import VoiceClient
from .webhook import Webhook
from .widget import Widget

    from .abc import GuildChannel, PrivateChannel, Snowflake, SnowflakeTime
    from .channel import DMChannel
    from .member import Member
    from .message import Message
    from .voice_client import VoiceProtocol

__all__ = ("Client",)

Coro = TypeVar("Coro", bound=Callable[..., Coroutine[Any, Any, Any]])

_log = logging.getLogger(__name__)

def _cancel_tasks(loop: asyncio.AbstractEventLoop) -> None:
    tasks = {t for t in asyncio.all_tasks(loop=loop) if not t.done()}

    if not tasks:
        return"Cleaning up after %d tasks.", len(tasks))
    for task in tasks:

    loop.run_until_complete(asyncio.gather(*tasks, return_exceptions=True))"All tasks finished cancelling.")

    for task in tasks:
        if task.cancelled():
        if task.exception() is not None:
                    "message": "Unhandled exception during shutdown.",
                    "exception": task.exception(),
                    "task": task,

def _cleanup_loop(loop: asyncio.AbstractEventLoop) -> None:
    finally:"Closing the event loop.")

[docs]class Client: r"""Represents a client connection that connects to Discord. This class is used to interact with the Discord WebSocket and API. A number of options can be passed to the :class:`Client`. Parameters ----------- max_messages: Optional[:class:`int`] The maximum number of messages to store in the internal message cache. This defaults to ``1000``. Passing in ``None`` disables the message cache. .. versionchanged:: 1.3 Allow disabling the message cache and change the default size to ``1000``. loop: Optional[:class:`asyncio.AbstractEventLoop`] The :class:`asyncio.AbstractEventLoop` to use for asynchronous operations. Defaults to ``None``, in which case the default event loop is used via :func:`asyncio.get_event_loop()`. connector: Optional[:class:`aiohttp.BaseConnector`] The connector to use for connection pooling. proxy: Optional[:class:`str`] Proxy URL. proxy_auth: Optional[:class:`aiohttp.BasicAuth`] An object that represents proxy HTTP Basic Authorization. shard_id: Optional[:class:`int`] Integer starting at ``0`` and less than :attr:`.shard_count`. shard_count: Optional[:class:`int`] The total number of shards. application_id: :class:`int` The client's application ID. intents: :class:`Intents` The intents that you want to enable for the session. This is a way of disabling and enabling certain gateway events from triggering and being sent. If not given, defaults to a regularly constructed :class:`Intents` class. .. versionadded:: 1.5 member_cache_flags: :class:`MemberCacheFlags` Allows for finer control over how the library caches members. If not given, defaults to cache as much as possible with the currently selected intents. .. versionadded:: 1.5 chunk_guilds_at_startup: :class:`bool` Indicates if :func:`.on_ready` should be delayed to chunk all guilds at start-up if necessary. This operation is incredibly slow for large amounts of guilds. The default is ``True`` if :attr:`Intents.members` is ``True``. .. versionadded:: 1.5 status: Optional[:class:`.Status`] A status to start your presence with upon logging on to Discord. activity: Optional[:class:`.BaseActivity`] An activity to start your presence with upon logging on to Discord. allowed_mentions: Optional[:class:`AllowedMentions`] Control how the client handles mentions by default on every message sent. .. versionadded:: 1.4 heartbeat_timeout: :class:`float` The maximum numbers of seconds before timing out and restarting the WebSocket in the case of not receiving a HEARTBEAT_ACK. Useful if processing the initial packets take too long to the point of disconnecting you. The default timeout is 60 seconds. guild_ready_timeout: :class:`float` The maximum number of seconds to wait for the GUILD_CREATE stream to end before preparing the member cache and firing READY. The default timeout is 2 seconds. .. versionadded:: 1.4 assume_unsync_clock: :class:`bool` Whether to assume the system clock is unsynced. This applies to the ratelimit handling code. If this is set to ``True``, the default, then the library uses the time to reset a rate limit bucket given by Discord. If this is ``False`` then your system clock is used to calculate how long to sleep for. If this is set to ``False`` it is recommended to sync your system clock to Google's NTP server. .. versionadded:: 1.3 enable_debug_events: :class:`bool` Whether to enable events that are useful only for debugging gateway related information. Right now this involves :func:`on_socket_raw_receive` and :func:`on_socket_raw_send`. If this is ``False`` then those events will not be dispatched (due to performance considerations). To enable these events, this must be set to ``True``. Defaults to ``False``. .. versionadded:: 2.0 Attributes ----------- ws The WebSocket gateway the client is currently connected to. Could be ``None``. loop: :class:`asyncio.AbstractEventLoop` The event loop that the client uses for asynchronous operations. """ def __init__( self, *, loop: asyncio.AbstractEventLoop | None = None, **options: Any, ): # is set in the connect method DiscordWebSocket = None # type: ignore self.loop: asyncio.AbstractEventLoop = ( asyncio.get_event_loop() if loop is None else loop ) self._listeners: dict[str, list[tuple[asyncio.Future, Callable[..., bool]]]] = ( {} ) self.shard_id: int | None = options.get("shard_id") self.shard_count: int | None = options.get("shard_count") connector: aiohttp.BaseConnector | None = options.pop("connector", None) proxy: str | None = options.pop("proxy", None) proxy_auth: aiohttp.BasicAuth | None = options.pop("proxy_auth", None) unsync_clock: bool = options.pop("assume_unsync_clock", True) self.http: HTTPClient = HTTPClient( connector, proxy=proxy, proxy_auth=proxy_auth, unsync_clock=unsync_clock, loop=self.loop, ) self._handlers: dict[str, Callable] = {"ready": self._handle_ready} self._hooks: dict[str, Callable] = { "before_identify": self._call_before_identify_hook } self._enable_debug_events: bool = options.pop("enable_debug_events", False) self._connection: ConnectionState = self._get_state(**options) self._connection.shard_count = self.shard_count self._closed: bool = False self._ready: asyncio.Event = asyncio.Event() self._connection._get_websocket = self._get_websocket self._connection._get_client = lambda: self self._event_handlers: dict[str, list[Coro]] = {} if VoiceClient.warn_nacl: VoiceClient.warn_nacl = False _log.warning("PyNaCl is not installed, voice will NOT be supported") async def __aenter__(self) -> Client: loop = asyncio.get_running_loop() self.loop = loop self.http.loop = loop self._connection.loop = loop self._ready = asyncio.Event() return self async def __aexit__( self, exc_t: BaseException | None, exc_v: BaseException | None, exc_tb: TracebackType | None, ) -> None: if not self.is_closed(): await self.close() # internals def _get_websocket( self, guild_id: int | None = None, *, shard_id: int | None = None ) -> DiscordWebSocket: return def _get_state(self, **options: Any) -> ConnectionState: return ConnectionState( dispatch=self.dispatch, handlers=self._handlers, hooks=self._hooks, http=self.http, loop=self.loop, **options, ) def _handle_ready(self) -> None: self._ready.set() @property def latency(self) -> float: """Measures latency between a HEARTBEAT and a HEARTBEAT_ACK in seconds. This could be referred to as the Discord WebSocket protocol latency. """ ws = return float("nan") if not ws else ws.latency
[docs] def is_ws_ratelimited(self) -> bool: """Whether the WebSocket is currently rate limited. This can be useful to know when deciding whether you should query members using HTTP or via the gateway. .. versionadded:: 1.6 """ if return return False
@property def user(self) -> ClientUser | None: """Represents the connected client. ``None`` if not logged in.""" return self._connection.user @property def guilds(self) -> list[Guild]: """The guilds that the connected client is a member of.""" return self._connection.guilds @property def emojis(self) -> list[Emoji]: """The emojis that the connected client has.""" return self._connection.emojis @property def stickers(self) -> list[GuildSticker]: """The stickers that the connected client has. .. versionadded:: 2.0 """ return self._connection.stickers @property def cached_messages(self) -> Sequence[Message]: """Read-only list of messages the connected client has cached. .. versionadded:: 1.1 """ return utils.SequenceProxy(self._connection._messages or []) @property def private_channels(self) -> list[PrivateChannel]: """The private channels that the connected client is participating on. .. note:: This returns only up to 128 most recent private channels due to an internal working on how Discord deals with private channels. """ return self._connection.private_channels @property def voice_clients(self) -> list[VoiceProtocol]: """Represents a list of voice connections. These are usually :class:`.VoiceClient` instances. """ return self._connection.voice_clients @property def application_id(self) -> int | None: """The client's application ID. If this is not passed via ``__init__`` then this is retrieved through the gateway when an event contains the data. Usually after :func:`~discord.on_connect` is called. .. versionadded:: 2.0 """ return self._connection.application_id @property def application_flags(self) -> ApplicationFlags: """The client's application flags. .. versionadded:: 2.0 """ return self._connection.application_flags # type: ignore
[docs] def is_ready(self) -> bool: """Specifies if the client's internal cache is ready for use.""" return self._ready.is_set()
async def _run_event( self, coro: Callable[..., Coroutine[Any, Any, Any]], event_name: str, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any, ) -> None: try: await coro(*args, **kwargs) except asyncio.CancelledError: pass except Exception: try: await self.on_error(event_name, *args, **kwargs) except asyncio.CancelledError: pass def _schedule_event( self, coro: Callable[..., Coroutine[Any, Any, Any]], event_name: str, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any, ) -> asyncio.Task: wrapped = self._run_event(coro, event_name, *args, **kwargs) # Schedules the task return asyncio.create_task(wrapped, name=f"pycord: {event_name}") def dispatch(self, event: str, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) -> None: _log.debug("Dispatching event %s", event) method = f"on_{event}" listeners = self._listeners.get(event) if listeners: removed = [] for i, (future, condition) in enumerate(listeners): if future.cancelled(): removed.append(i) continue try: result = condition(*args) except Exception as exc: future.set_exception(exc) removed.append(i) else: if result: if len(args) == 0: future.set_result(None) elif len(args) == 1: future.set_result(args[0]) else: future.set_result(args) removed.append(i) if len(removed) == len(listeners): self._listeners.pop(event) else: for idx in reversed(removed): del listeners[idx] # Schedule the main handler registered with @event try: coro = getattr(self, method) except AttributeError: pass else: self._schedule_event(coro, method, *args, **kwargs) # collect the once listeners as removing them from the list # while iterating over it causes issues once_listeners = [] # Schedule additional handlers registered with @listen for coro in self._event_handlers.get(method, []): self._schedule_event(coro, method, *args, **kwargs) try: if coro._once: # added using @listen() once_listeners.append(coro) except AttributeError: # added using @Cog.add_listener() # # Although methods are similar to functions, attributes can't be added to them. # This means that we can't add the `_once` attribute in the `add_listener` method # and can only be added using the `@listen` decorator. continue # remove the once listeners for coro in once_listeners: self._event_handlers[method].remove(coro)
[docs] async def on_error(self, event_method: str, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) -> None: """|coro| The default error handler provided by the client. By default, this prints to :data:`sys.stderr` however it could be overridden to have a different implementation. Check :func:`~discord.on_error` for more details. """ print(f"Ignoring exception in {event_method}", file=sys.stderr) traceback.print_exc()
# hooks async def _call_before_identify_hook( self, shard_id: int | None, *, initial: bool = False ) -> None: # This hook is an internal hook that actually calls the public one. # It allows the library to have its own hook without stepping on the # toes of those who need to override their own hook. await self.before_identify_hook(shard_id, initial=initial)
[docs] async def before_identify_hook( self, shard_id: int | None, *, initial: bool = False ) -> None: """|coro| A hook that is called before IDENTIFYing a session. This is useful if you wish to have more control over the synchronization of multiple IDENTIFYing clients. The default implementation sleeps for 5 seconds. .. versionadded:: 1.4 Parameters ---------- shard_id: :class:`int` The shard ID that requested being IDENTIFY'd initial: :class:`bool` Whether this IDENTIFY is the first initial IDENTIFY. """ if not initial: await asyncio.sleep(5.0)
# login state management
[docs] async def login(self, token: str) -> None: """|coro| Logs in the client with the specified credentials. Parameters ---------- token: :class:`str` The authentication token. Do not prefix this token with anything as the library will do it for you. Raises ------ TypeError The token was in invalid type. :exc:`LoginFailure` The wrong credentials are passed. :exc:`HTTPException` An unknown HTTP related error occurred, usually when it isn't 200 or the known incorrect credentials passing status code. """ if not isinstance(token, str): raise TypeError( f"token must be of type str, not {token.__class__.__name__}" )"logging in using static token") data = await self.http.static_login(token.strip()) self._connection.user = ClientUser(state=self._connection, data=data)
[docs] async def connect(self, *, reconnect: bool = True) -> None: """|coro| Creates a WebSocket connection and lets the WebSocket listen to messages from Discord. This is a loop that runs the entire event system and miscellaneous aspects of the library. Control is not resumed until the WebSocket connection is terminated. Parameters ---------- reconnect: :class:`bool` If we should attempt reconnecting, either due to internet failure or a specific failure on Discord's part. Certain disconnects that lead to bad state will not be handled (such as invalid sharding payloads or bad tokens). Raises ------ :exc:`GatewayNotFound` The gateway to connect to Discord is not found. Usually if this is thrown then there is a Discord API outage. :exc:`ConnectionClosed` The WebSocket connection has been terminated. """ backoff = ExponentialBackoff() ws_params = { "initial": True, "shard_id": self.shard_id, } while not self.is_closed(): try: coro = DiscordWebSocket.from_client(self, **ws_params) = await asyncio.wait_for(coro, timeout=60.0) ws_params["initial"] = False while True: await except ReconnectWebSocket as e:"Got a request to %s the websocket.", e.op) self.dispatch("disconnect") ws_params.update(, resume=e.resume,, ) continue except ( OSError, HTTPException, GatewayNotFound, ConnectionClosed, aiohttp.ClientError, asyncio.TimeoutError, ) as exc: self.dispatch("disconnect") if not reconnect: await self.close() if isinstance(exc, ConnectionClosed) and exc.code == 1000: # clean close, don't re-raise this return raise if self.is_closed(): return # If we get connection reset by peer then try to RESUME if isinstance(exc, OSError) and exc.errno in (54, 10054): ws_params.update(, initial=False, resume=True,, ) continue # We should only get this when an unhandled close code happens, # such as a clean disconnect (1000) or a bad state (bad token, no sharding, etc) # sometimes, discord sends us 1000 for unknown reasons, so we should reconnect # regardless and rely on is_closed instead if isinstance(exc, ConnectionClosed): if exc.code == 4014: raise PrivilegedIntentsRequired(exc.shard_id) from None if exc.code != 1000: await self.close() raise retry = backoff.delay() _log.exception("Attempting a reconnect in %.2fs", retry) await asyncio.sleep(retry) # Always try to RESUME the connection # If the connection is not RESUME-able then the gateway will invalidate the session. # This is apparently what the official Discord client does. if is None: continue ws_params.update(, resume=True, )
[docs] async def close(self) -> None: """|coro| Closes the connection to Discord. """ if self._closed: return self._closed = True for voice in self.voice_clients: try: await voice.disconnect(force=True) except Exception: # if an error happens during disconnects, disregard it. pass if is not None and await await self.http.close() self._ready.clear()
[docs] def clear(self) -> None: """Clears the internal state of the bot. After this, the bot can be considered "re-opened", i.e. :meth:`is_closed` and :meth:`is_ready` both return ``False`` along with the bot's internal cache cleared. """ self._closed = False self._ready.clear() self._connection.clear() self.http.recreate()
[docs] async def start(self, token: str, *, reconnect: bool = True) -> None: """|coro| A shorthand coroutine for :meth:`login` + :meth:`connect`. Raises ------ TypeError An unexpected keyword argument was received. """ await self.login(token) await self.connect(reconnect=reconnect)
[docs] def run(self, *args: Any, **kwargs: Any) -> None: """A blocking call that abstracts away the event loop initialisation from you. If you want more control over the event loop then this function should not be used. Use :meth:`start` coroutine or :meth:`connect` + :meth:`login`. Roughly Equivalent to: :: try: loop.run_until_complete(start(*args, **kwargs)) except KeyboardInterrupt: loop.run_until_complete(close()) # cancel all tasks lingering finally: loop.close() .. warning:: This function must be the last function to call due to the fact that it is blocking. That means that registration of events or anything being called after this function call will not execute until it returns. """ loop = self.loop try: loop.add_signal_handler(signal.SIGINT, loop.stop) loop.add_signal_handler(signal.SIGTERM, loop.stop) except (NotImplementedError, RuntimeError): pass async def runner(): try: await self.start(*args, **kwargs) finally: if not self.is_closed(): await self.close() def stop_loop_on_completion(f): loop.stop() future = asyncio.ensure_future(runner(), loop=loop) future.add_done_callback(stop_loop_on_completion) try: loop.run_forever() except KeyboardInterrupt:"Received signal to terminate bot and event loop.") finally: future.remove_done_callback(stop_loop_on_completion)"Cleaning up tasks.") _cleanup_loop(loop) if not future.cancelled(): try: return future.result() except KeyboardInterrupt: # I am unsure why this gets raised here but suppress it anyway return None
# properties
[docs] def is_closed(self) -> bool: """Indicates if the WebSocket connection is closed.""" return self._closed
@property def activity(self) -> ActivityTypes | None: """The activity being used upon logging in. Returns ------- Optional[:class:`.BaseActivity`] """ return create_activity(self._connection._activity) @activity.setter def activity(self, value: ActivityTypes | None) -> None: if value is None: self._connection._activity = None elif isinstance(value, BaseActivity): # ConnectionState._activity is typehinted as ActivityPayload, we're passing Dict[str, Any] self._connection._activity = value.to_dict() # type: ignore else: raise TypeError("activity must derive from BaseActivity.") @property def status(self) -> Status: """The status being used upon logging on to Discord. .. versionadded: 2.0 """ if self._connection._status in {state.value for state in Status}: return Status(self._connection._status) return @status.setter def status(self, value: Status) -> None: if value is Status.offline: self._connection._status = "invisible" elif isinstance(value, Status): self._connection._status = str(value) else: raise TypeError("status must derive from Status.") @property def allowed_mentions(self) -> AllowedMentions | None: """The allowed mention configuration. .. versionadded:: 1.4 """ return self._connection.allowed_mentions @allowed_mentions.setter def allowed_mentions(self, value: AllowedMentions | None) -> None: if value is None or isinstance(value, AllowedMentions): self._connection.allowed_mentions = value else: raise TypeError( f"allowed_mentions must be AllowedMentions not {value.__class__!r}" ) @property def intents(self) -> Intents: """The intents configured for this connection. .. versionadded:: 1.5 """ return self._connection.intents # helpers/getters @property def users(self) -> list[User]: """Returns a list of all the users the bot can see.""" return list(self._connection._users.values())
[docs] async def fetch_application(self, application_id: int, /) -> PartialAppInfo: """|coro| Retrieves a :class:`.PartialAppInfo` from an application ID. Parameters ---------- application_id: :class:`int` The application ID to retrieve information from. Returns ------- :class:`.PartialAppInfo` The application information. Raises ------ NotFound An application with this ID does not exist. HTTPException Retrieving the application failed. """ data = await self.http.get_application(application_id) return PartialAppInfo(state=self._connection, data=data)
[docs] def get_channel(self, id: int, /) -> GuildChannel | Thread | PrivateChannel | None: """Returns a channel or thread with the given ID. Parameters ---------- id: :class:`int` The ID to search for. Returns ------- Optional[Union[:class:`.abc.GuildChannel`, :class:`.Thread`, :class:`.abc.PrivateChannel`]] The returned channel or ``None`` if not found. """ return self._connection.get_channel(id)
[docs] def get_message(self, id: int, /) -> Message | None: """Returns a message the given ID. This is useful if you have a message_id but don't want to do an API call to access the message. Parameters ---------- id: :class:`int` The ID to search for. Returns ------- Optional[:class:`.Message`] The returned message or ``None`` if not found. """ return self._connection._get_message(id)
[docs] def get_partial_messageable( self, id: int, *, type: ChannelType | None = None ) -> PartialMessageable: """Returns a partial messageable with the given channel ID. This is useful if you have a channel_id but don't want to do an API call to send messages to it. .. versionadded:: 2.0 Parameters ---------- id: :class:`int` The channel ID to create a partial messageable for. type: Optional[:class:`.ChannelType`] The underlying channel type for the partial messageable. Returns ------- :class:`.PartialMessageable` The partial messageable """ return PartialMessageable(state=self._connection, id=id, type=type)
[docs] def get_stage_instance(self, id: int, /) -> StageInstance | None: """Returns a stage instance with the given stage channel ID. .. versionadded:: 2.0 Parameters ---------- id: :class:`int` The ID to search for. Returns ------- Optional[:class:`.StageInstance`] The stage instance or ``None`` if not found. """ from .channel import StageChannel channel = self._connection.get_channel(id) if isinstance(channel, StageChannel): return channel.instance
[docs] def get_guild(self, id: int, /) -> Guild | None: """Returns a guild with the given ID. Parameters ---------- id: :class:`int` The ID to search for. Returns ------- Optional[:class:`.Guild`] The guild or ``None`` if not found. """ return self._connection._get_guild(id)
[docs] def get_user(self, id: int, /) -> User | None: """Returns a user with the given ID. Parameters ---------- id: :class:`int` The ID to search for. Returns ------- Optional[:class:`~discord.User`] The user or ``None`` if not found. """ return self._connection.get_user(id)
[docs] def get_emoji(self, id: int, /) -> Emoji | None: """Returns an emoji with the given ID. Parameters ---------- id: :class:`int` The ID to search for. Returns ------- Optional[:class:`.Emoji`] The custom emoji or ``None`` if not found. """ return self._connection.get_emoji(id)
[docs] def get_sticker(self, id: int, /) -> GuildSticker | None: """Returns a guild sticker with the given ID. .. versionadded:: 2.0 .. note:: To retrieve standard stickers, use :meth:`.fetch_sticker`. or :meth:`.fetch_premium_sticker_packs`. Returns ------- Optional[:class:`.GuildSticker`] The sticker or ``None`` if not found. """ return self._connection.get_sticker(id)
[docs] def get_all_channels(self) -> Generator[GuildChannel, None, None]: """A generator that retrieves every :class:`.abc.GuildChannel` the client can 'access'. This is equivalent to: :: for guild in client.guilds: for channel in guild.channels: yield channel .. note:: Just because you receive a :class:`.abc.GuildChannel` does not mean that you can communicate in said channel. :meth:`.abc.GuildChannel.permissions_for` should be used for that. Yields ------ :class:`.abc.GuildChannel` A channel the client can 'access'. """ for guild in self.guilds: yield from guild.channels
[docs] def get_all_members(self) -> Generator[Member, None, None]: """Returns a generator with every :class:`.Member` the client can see. This is equivalent to: :: for guild in client.guilds: for member in guild.members: yield member Yields ------ :class:`.Member` A member the client can see. """ for guild in self.guilds: yield from guild.members
[docs] async def get_or_fetch_user(self, id: int, /) -> User | None: """|coro| Looks up a user in the user cache or fetches if not found. Parameters ---------- id: :class:`int` The ID to search for. Returns ------- Optional[:class:`~discord.User`] The user or ``None`` if not found. """ return await utils.get_or_fetch(obj=self, attr="user", id=id, default=None)
# listeners/waiters
[docs] async def wait_until_ready(self) -> None: """|coro| Waits until the client's internal cache is all ready. """ await self._ready.wait()
[docs] def wait_for( self, event: str, *, check: Callable[..., bool] | None = None, timeout: float | None = None, ) -> Any: """|coro| Waits for a WebSocket event to be dispatched. This could be used to wait for a user to reply to a message, or to react to a message, or to edit a message in a self-contained way. The ``timeout`` parameter is passed onto :func:`asyncio.wait_for`. By default, it does not timeout. Note that this does propagate the :exc:`asyncio.TimeoutError` for you in case of timeout and is provided for ease of use. In case the event returns multiple arguments, a :class:`tuple` containing those arguments is returned instead. Please check the :ref:`documentation <discord-api-events>` for a list of events and their parameters. This function returns the **first event that meets the requirements**. Parameters ---------- event: :class:`str` The event name, similar to the :ref:`event reference <discord-api-events>`, but without the ``on_`` prefix, to wait for. check: Optional[Callable[..., :class:`bool`]] A predicate to check what to wait for. The arguments must meet the parameters of the event being waited for. timeout: Optional[:class:`float`] The number of seconds to wait before timing out and raising :exc:`asyncio.TimeoutError`. Returns ------- Any Returns no arguments, a single argument, or a :class:`tuple` of multiple arguments that mirrors the parameters passed in the :ref:`event reference <discord-api-events>`. Raises ------ asyncio.TimeoutError Raised if a timeout is provided and reached. Examples -------- Waiting for a user reply: :: @client.event async def on_message(message): if message.content.startswith('$greet'): channel = await channel.send('Say hello!') def check(m): return m.content == 'hello' and == channel msg = await client.wait_for('message', check=check) await channel.send(f'Hello {}!') Waiting for a thumbs up reaction from the message author: :: @client.event async def on_message(message): if message.content.startswith('$thumb'): channel = await channel.send('Send me that \N{THUMBS UP SIGN} reaction, mate') def check(reaction, user): return user == and str(reaction.emoji) == '\N{THUMBS UP SIGN}' try: reaction, user = await client.wait_for('reaction_add', timeout=60.0, check=check) except asyncio.TimeoutError: await channel.send('\N{THUMBS DOWN SIGN}') else: await channel.send('\N{THUMBS UP SIGN}') """ future = self.loop.create_future() if check is None: def _check(*args): return True check = _check ev = event.lower() try: listeners = self._listeners[ev] except KeyError: listeners = [] self._listeners[ev] = listeners listeners.append((future, check)) return asyncio.wait_for(future, timeout)
# event registration
[docs] def add_listener(self, func: Coro, name: str = MISSING) -> None: """The non decorator alternative to :meth:`.listen`. Parameters ---------- func: :ref:`coroutine <coroutine>` The function to call. name: :class:`str` The name of the event to listen for. Defaults to ``func.__name__``. Raises ------ TypeError The ``func`` parameter is not a coroutine function. ValueError The ``name`` (event name) does not start with 'on_' Example ------- .. code-block:: python3 async def on_ready(): pass async def my_message(message): pass client.add_listener(on_ready) client.add_listener(my_message, 'on_message') """ name = func.__name__ if name is MISSING else name if not name.startswith("on_"): raise ValueError("The 'name' parameter must start with 'on_'") if not asyncio.iscoroutinefunction(func): raise TypeError("Listeners must be coroutines") if name in self._event_handlers: self._event_handlers[name].append(func) else: self._event_handlers[name] = [func] _log.debug( "%s has successfully been registered as a handler for event %s", func.__name__, name, )
[docs] def remove_listener(self, func: Coro, name: str = MISSING) -> None: """Removes a listener from the pool of listeners. Parameters ---------- func The function that was used as a listener to remove. name: :class:`str` The name of the event we want to remove. Defaults to ``func.__name__``. """ name = func.__name__ if name is MISSING else name if name in self._event_handlers: try: self._event_handlers[name].remove(func) except ValueError: pass
[docs] def listen(self, name: str = MISSING, once: bool = False) -> Callable[[Coro], Coro]: """A decorator that registers another function as an external event listener. Basically this allows you to listen to multiple events from different places e.g. such as :func:`.on_ready` The functions being listened to must be a :ref:`coroutine <coroutine>`. Raises ------ TypeError The function being listened to is not a coroutine. ValueError The ``name`` (event name) does not start with 'on_' Example ------- .. code-block:: python3 @client.listen() async def on_message(message): print('one') # in some other file... @client.listen('on_message') async def my_message(message): print('two') # listen to the first event only @client.listen('on_ready', once=True) async def on_ready(): print('ready!') Would print one and two in an unspecified order. """ def decorator(func: Coro) -> Coro: # Special case, where default should be overwritten if name == "on_application_command_error": return self.event(func) func._once = once self.add_listener(func, name) return func if asyncio.iscoroutinefunction(name): coro = name name = coro.__name__ return decorator(coro) return decorator
[docs] def event(self, coro: Coro) -> Coro: """A decorator that registers an event to listen to. You can find more info about the events on the :ref:`documentation below <discord-api-events>`. The events must be a :ref:`coroutine <coroutine>`, if not, :exc:`TypeError` is raised. .. note:: This replaces any default handlers. Developers are encouraged to use :py:meth:`~discord.Client.listen` for adding additional handlers instead of :py:meth:`~discord.Client.event` unless default method replacement is intended. Raises ------ TypeError The coroutine passed is not actually a coroutine. Example ------- .. code-block:: python3 @client.event async def on_ready(): print('Ready!') """ if not asyncio.iscoroutinefunction(coro): raise TypeError("event registered must be a coroutine function") setattr(self, coro.__name__, coro) _log.debug("%s has successfully been registered as an event", coro.__name__) return coro
[docs] async def change_presence( self, *, activity: BaseActivity | None = None, status: Status | None = None, ): """|coro| Changes the client's presence. Parameters ---------- activity: Optional[:class:`.BaseActivity`] The activity being done. ``None`` if no currently active activity is done. status: Optional[:class:`.Status`] Indicates what status to change to. If ``None``, then :attr:`` is used. Raises ------ :exc:`InvalidArgument` If the ``activity`` parameter is not the proper type. Example ------- .. code-block:: python3 game = discord.Game("with the API") await client.change_presence(status=discord.Status.idle, activity=game) .. versionchanged:: 2.0 Removed the ``afk`` keyword-only parameter. """ if status is None: status_str = "online" status = elif status is Status.offline: status_str = "invisible" status = Status.offline else: status_str = str(status) await, status=status_str) for guild in self._connection.guilds: me = if me is None: continue me.activities = (activity,) if activity is not None else () me.status = status
# Guild stuff
[docs] def fetch_guilds( self, *, limit: int | None = 100, before: SnowflakeTime = None, after: SnowflakeTime = None, ) -> GuildIterator: """Retrieves an :class:`.AsyncIterator` that enables receiving your guilds. .. note:: Using this, you will only receive :attr:`.Guild.owner`, :attr:`.Guild.icon`, :attr:``, and :attr:`` per :class:`.Guild`. .. note:: This method is an API call. For general usage, consider :attr:`guilds` instead. Parameters ---------- limit: Optional[:class:`int`] The number of guilds to retrieve. If ``None``, it retrieves every guild you have access to. Note, however, that this would make it a slow operation. Defaults to ``100``. before: Union[:class:`.abc.Snowflake`, :class:`datetime.datetime`] Retrieves guilds before this date or object. If a datetime is provided, it is recommended to use a UTC aware datetime. If the datetime is naive, it is assumed to be local time. after: Union[:class:`.abc.Snowflake`, :class:`datetime.datetime`] Retrieve guilds after this date or object. If a datetime is provided, it is recommended to use a UTC aware datetime. If the datetime is naive, it is assumed to be local time. Yields ------ :class:`.Guild` The guild with the guild data parsed. Raises ------ :exc:`HTTPException` Getting the guilds failed. Examples -------- Usage :: async for guild in client.fetch_guilds(limit=150): print( Flattening into a list :: guilds = await client.fetch_guilds(limit=150).flatten() # guilds is now a list of Guild... All parameters are optional. """ return GuildIterator(self, limit=limit, before=before, after=after)
[docs] async def fetch_template(self, code: Template | str) -> Template: """|coro| Gets a :class:`.Template` from a URL or code. Parameters ---------- code: Union[:class:`.Template`, :class:`str`] The Discord Template Code or URL (must be a URL). Returns ------- :class:`.Template` The template from the URL/code. Raises ------ :exc:`NotFound` The template is invalid. :exc:`HTTPException` Getting the template failed. """ code = utils.resolve_template(code) data = await self.http.get_template(code) return Template(data=data, state=self._connection) # type: ignore
[docs] async def fetch_guild(self, guild_id: int, /, *, with_counts=True) -> Guild: """|coro| Retrieves a :class:`.Guild` from an ID. .. note:: Using this, you will **not** receive :attr:`.Guild.channels`, :attr:`.Guild.members`, :attr:`.Member.activity` and :attr:`.Member.voice` per :class:`.Member`. .. note:: This method is an API call. For general usage, consider :meth:`get_guild` instead. Parameters ---------- guild_id: :class:`int` The guild's ID to fetch from. with_counts: :class:`bool` Whether to include count information in the guild. This fills the :attr:`.Guild.approximate_member_count` and :attr:`.Guild.approximate_presence_count` fields. .. versionadded:: 2.0 Returns ------- :class:`.Guild` The guild from the ID. Raises ------ :exc:`Forbidden` You do not have access to the guild. :exc:`HTTPException` Getting the guild failed. """ data = await self.http.get_guild(guild_id, with_counts=with_counts) return Guild(data=data, state=self._connection)
[docs] async def create_guild( self, *, name: str, icon: bytes = MISSING, code: str = MISSING, ) -> Guild: """|coro| Creates a :class:`.Guild`. Bot accounts in more than 10 guilds are not allowed to create guilds. Parameters ---------- name: :class:`str` The name of the guild. icon: Optional[:class:`bytes`] The :term:`py:bytes-like object` representing the icon. See :meth:`.ClientUser.edit` for more details on what is expected. code: :class:`str` The code for a template to create the guild with. .. versionadded:: 1.4 Returns ------- :class:`.Guild` The guild created. This is not the same guild that is added to cache. Raises ------ :exc:`HTTPException` Guild creation failed. :exc:`InvalidArgument` Invalid icon image format given. Must be PNG or JPG. """ if icon is not MISSING: icon_base64 = utils._bytes_to_base64_data(icon) else: icon_base64 = None if code: data = await self.http.create_from_template(code, name, icon_base64) else: data = await self.http.create_guild(name, icon_base64) return Guild(data=data, state=self._connection)
[docs] async def fetch_stage_instance(self, channel_id: int, /) -> StageInstance: """|coro| Gets a :class:`.StageInstance` for a stage channel id. .. versionadded:: 2.0 Parameters ---------- channel_id: :class:`int` The stage channel ID. Returns ------- :class:`.StageInstance` The stage instance from the stage channel ID. Raises ------ :exc:`NotFound` The stage instance or channel could not be found. :exc:`HTTPException` Getting the stage instance failed. """ data = await self.http.get_stage_instance(channel_id) guild = self.get_guild(int(data["guild_id"])) return StageInstance(guild=guild, state=self._connection, data=data) # type: ignore
# Invite management
[docs] async def fetch_invite( self, url: Invite | str, *, with_counts: bool = True, with_expiration: bool = True, event_id: int | None = None, ) -> Invite: """|coro| Gets an :class:`.Invite` from a URL or ID. .. note:: If the invite is for a guild you have not joined, the guild and channel attributes of the returned :class:`.Invite` will be :class:`.PartialInviteGuild` and :class:`.PartialInviteChannel` respectively. Parameters ---------- url: Union[:class:`.Invite`, :class:`str`] The Discord invite ID or URL (must be a URL). with_counts: :class:`bool` Whether to include count information in the invite. This fills the :attr:`.Invite.approximate_member_count` and :attr:`.Invite.approximate_presence_count` fields. with_expiration: :class:`bool` Whether to include the expiration date of the invite. This fills the :attr:`.Invite.expires_at` field. .. versionadded:: 2.0 event_id: Optional[:class:`int`] The ID of the scheduled event to be associated with the event. See :meth:`Invite.set_scheduled_event` for more info on event invite linking. .. versionadded:: 2.0 Returns ------- :class:`.Invite` The invite from the URL/ID. Raises ------ :exc:`NotFound` The invite has expired or is invalid. :exc:`HTTPException` Getting the invite failed. """ invite_id = utils.resolve_invite(url) data = await self.http.get_invite( invite_id, with_counts=with_counts, with_expiration=with_expiration, guild_scheduled_event_id=event_id, ) return Invite.from_incomplete(state=self._connection, data=data)
[docs] async def delete_invite(self, invite: Invite | str) -> None: """|coro| Revokes an :class:`.Invite`, URL, or ID to an invite. You must have the :attr:`~.Permissions.manage_channels` permission in the associated guild to do this. Parameters ---------- invite: Union[:class:`.Invite`, :class:`str`] The invite to revoke. Raises ------ :exc:`Forbidden` You do not have permissions to revoke invites. :exc:`NotFound` The invite is invalid or expired. :exc:`HTTPException` Revoking the invite failed. """ invite_id = utils.resolve_invite(invite) await self.http.delete_invite(invite_id)
# Miscellaneous stuff
[docs] async def fetch_widget(self, guild_id: int, /) -> Widget: """|coro| Gets a :class:`.Widget` from a guild ID. .. note:: The guild must have the widget enabled to get this information. Parameters ---------- guild_id: :class:`int` The ID of the guild. Returns ------- :class:`.Widget` The guild's widget. Raises ------ :exc:`Forbidden` The widget for this guild is disabled. :exc:`HTTPException` Retrieving the widget failed. """ data = await self.http.get_widget(guild_id) return Widget(state=self._connection, data=data)
[docs] async def application_info(self) -> AppInfo: """|coro| Retrieves the bot's application information. Returns ------- :class:`.AppInfo` The bot's application information. Raises ------ :exc:`HTTPException` Retrieving the information failed somehow. """ data = await self.http.application_info() if "rpc_origins" not in data: data["rpc_origins"] = None return AppInfo(self._connection, data)
[docs] async def fetch_user(self, user_id: int, /) -> User: """|coro| Retrieves a :class:`~discord.User` based on their ID. You do not have to share any guilds with the user to get this information, however many operations do require that you do. .. note:: This method is an API call. If you have :attr:`discord.Intents.members` and member cache enabled, consider :meth:`get_user` instead. Parameters ---------- user_id: :class:`int` The user's ID to fetch from. Returns ------- :class:`~discord.User` The user you requested. Raises ------ :exc:`NotFound` A user with this ID does not exist. :exc:`HTTPException` Fetching the user failed. """ data = await self.http.get_user(user_id) return User(state=self._connection, data=data)
[docs] async def fetch_channel( self, channel_id: int, / ) -> GuildChannel | PrivateChannel | Thread: """|coro| Retrieves a :class:`.abc.GuildChannel`, :class:`.abc.PrivateChannel`, or :class:`.Thread` with the specified ID. .. note:: This method is an API call. For general usage, consider :meth:`get_channel` instead. .. versionadded:: 1.2 Returns ------- Union[:class:`.abc.GuildChannel`, :class:`.abc.PrivateChannel`, :class:`.Thread`] The channel from the ID. Raises ------ :exc:`InvalidData` An unknown channel type was received from Discord. :exc:`HTTPException` Retrieving the channel failed. :exc:`NotFound` Invalid Channel ID. :exc:`Forbidden` You do not have permission to fetch this channel. """ data = await self.http.get_channel(channel_id) factory, ch_type = _threaded_channel_factory(data["type"]) if factory is None: raise InvalidData( "Unknown channel type {type} for channel ID {id}.".format_map(data) ) if ch_type in (, ChannelType.private): # the factory will be a DMChannel or GroupChannel here return factory(me=self.user, data=data, state=self._connection) # the factory can't be a DMChannel or GroupChannel here guild_id = int(data["guild_id"]) # type: ignore guild = self.get_guild(guild_id) or Object(id=guild_id) # GuildChannels expect a Guild, we may be passing an Object return factory(guild=guild, state=self._connection, data=data)
[docs] async def fetch_webhook(self, webhook_id: int, /) -> Webhook: """|coro| Retrieves a :class:`.Webhook` with the specified ID. Returns ------- :class:`.Webhook` The webhook you requested. Raises ------ :exc:`HTTPException` Retrieving the webhook failed. :exc:`NotFound` Invalid webhook ID. :exc:`Forbidden` You do not have permission to fetch this webhook. """ data = await self.http.get_webhook(webhook_id) return Webhook.from_state(data, state=self._connection)
[docs] async def fetch_sticker(self, sticker_id: int, /) -> StandardSticker | GuildSticker: """|coro| Retrieves a :class:`.Sticker` with the specified ID. .. versionadded:: 2.0 Returns ------- Union[:class:`.StandardSticker`, :class:`.GuildSticker`] The sticker you requested. Raises ------ :exc:`HTTPException` Retrieving the sticker failed. :exc:`NotFound` Invalid sticker ID. """ data = await self.http.get_sticker(sticker_id) cls, _ = _sticker_factory(data["type"]) # type: ignore return cls(state=self._connection, data=data) # type: ignore
[docs] async def fetch_premium_sticker_packs(self) -> list[StickerPack]: """|coro| Retrieves all available premium sticker packs. .. versionadded:: 2.0 Returns ------- List[:class:`.StickerPack`] All available premium sticker packs. Raises ------ :exc:`HTTPException` Retrieving the sticker packs failed. """ data = await self.http.list_premium_sticker_packs() return [ StickerPack(state=self._connection, data=pack) for pack in data["sticker_packs"] ]
[docs] async def create_dm(self, user: Snowflake) -> DMChannel: """|coro| Creates a :class:`.DMChannel` with this user. This should be rarely called, as this is done transparently for most people. .. versionadded:: 2.0 Parameters ---------- user: :class:`` The user to create a DM with. Returns ------- :class:`.DMChannel` The channel that was created. """ state = self._connection found = state._get_private_channel_by_user( if found: return found data = await state.http.start_private_message( return state.add_dm_channel(data)
[docs] def add_view(self, view: View, *, message_id: int | None = None) -> None: """Registers a :class:`~discord.ui.View` for persistent listening. This method should be used for when a view is comprised of components that last longer than the lifecycle of the program. .. versionadded:: 2.0 Parameters ---------- view: :class:`discord.ui.View` The view to register for dispatching. message_id: Optional[:class:`int`] The message ID that the view is attached to. This is currently used to refresh the view's state during message update events. If not given then message update events are not propagated for the view. Raises ------ TypeError A view was not passed. ValueError The view is not persistent. A persistent view has no timeout and all their components have an explicitly provided ``custom_id``. """ if not isinstance(view, View): raise TypeError(f"expected an instance of View not {view.__class__!r}") if not view.is_persistent(): raise ValueError( "View is not persistent. Items need to have a custom_id set and View" " must have no timeout" ) self._connection.store_view(view, message_id)
@property def persistent_views(self) -> Sequence[View]: """A sequence of persistent views added to the client. .. versionadded:: 2.0 """ return self._connection.persistent_views
[docs] async def fetch_role_connection_metadata_records( self, ) -> list[ApplicationRoleConnectionMetadata]: """|coro| Fetches the bot's role connection metadata records. .. versionadded:: 2.4 Returns ------- List[:class:`.ApplicationRoleConnectionMetadata`] The bot's role connection metadata records. """ data = await self._connection.http.get_application_role_connection_metadata_records( self.application_id ) return [ApplicationRoleConnectionMetadata.from_dict(r) for r in data]
[docs] async def update_role_connection_metadata_records( self, *role_connection_metadata ) -> list[ApplicationRoleConnectionMetadata]: """|coro| Updates the bot's role connection metadata records. .. versionadded:: 2.4 Parameters ---------- *role_connection_metadata: :class:`ApplicationRoleConnectionMetadata` The new metadata records to send to Discord. Returns ------- List[:class:`.ApplicationRoleConnectionMetadata`] The updated role connection metadata records. """ payload = [r.to_dict() for r in role_connection_metadata] data = await self._connection.http.update_application_role_connection_metadata_records( self.application_id, payload ) return [ApplicationRoleConnectionMetadata.from_dict(r) for r in data]
[docs] async def fetch_skus(self) -> list[SKU]: """|coro| Fetches the bot's SKUs. .. versionadded:: 2.5 Returns ------- List[:class:`.SKU`] The bot's SKUs. """ data = await self._connection.http.list_skus(self.application_id) return [SKU(data=s) for s in data]
[docs] async def fetch_entitlements(self) -> list[Entitlement]: """|coro| Fetches the bot's entitlements. .. versionadded:: 2.5 Returns ------- List[:class:`.Entitlement`] The bot's entitlements. """ data = await self._connection.http.list_entitlements(self.application_id) return [Entitlement(data=e, state=self._connection) for e in data]